Sagas and space (1): placing space

My first MOOC of the year, after a couple of false starts, may well be Sagas and space: thinking space in Viking age and medieval Scandinavia. It’s going to be an arm’s length affair for the sagas – medieval history is emphatically not my period, and TBH I never associated Vikings with Denmark before moving here, but the potential for yet more input about s/p(l)ace hereabouts isn’t to be sniffed at.

On Coursera, eight weeks from 7 April, 7500 signed up, 60% female. It’s being run by a team from the University of Zurich, and why not. Lovely place, reeks of class. Anyway, back to the sagas…

Explore with us the fascinating ways of thinking about space in Viking Age and Old Norse culture. Together we will discuss how space is conceptualised and depicted in diverse Old Norse genres and traditions.

Space is a basic category of human thought. Over the last decades it became a very productive scientific category, too. Thinking about spaces, places, locations, or landscapes covers a spectrum of meanings from the concrete and material through to the abstract and metaphorical.

In this course we explore various categories of space in the field of Old Norse culture. Together with international guest scholars from different fields we want to find out how mythological, heroic, historical, geographical spaces or landscapes look like in written and oral narratives, but also on picture-stones, runic inscriptions, paintings, woodcarvings and manuscripts. Another promising question could be to ask about the relationship between texts, images and maps and the process of mapping itself.

Spookily enough, the 16th International Saga Conference in August is hosted by the universities of Zurich and Basel, with the theme of…sagas and space. Good plan, tying a MOOC and conference together.

Sagas and space branding (source: Wikimedia Commons, public domain)

Week 1: space as a key element of narration and representation

Other than primary school my only exposure to Vikingery is probably the Scottish section of Robert Macfarlane’s The old ways, plus some reading I did after our trip to the Faroes last June, with a nod to Orkney in 2012. Not forgetting the local burial mounds…so the Scottish links are of some interest, although I identify more as a Celt. Hence one of the recommended resources, The saga-steads of Iceland: a 21st century pilgrimage, a blog and accompanying Icelandic Saga Map by Emily Lethbridge, may well prove helpful. More excitingly, there’s a glossary to come – it’s arrivé, such as it is!

Note this is about ‘space’, not ‘place’ – see my post on place writing now.

From the introductory remarks by Jürg Glauser:

  • part of the category ‘space': historical space, political space, economic space, bodily space, postcolonial space, social space, technical space, medial space, cognitive space, landscape space, urban space, touristic space, poetic space, epistemic space (see Stephan Günzel, plus What is the spatial turn?)
  • alludes to Mikhail Bakhtin’s chronotope, encountered in Karl Schögel’s Moscow, 1937: “the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature”, and the new to me International Institute of Geopoetics (and Scottish Centre for Geopoetics, whose journal is called Stravaig)
  • areas of Old Norse‐Icelandic culture for closer examination in terms of their spatiality:
    • graphic materiality – the spatial dimension of writing, eg runes, Jelling stones
    • the topology and topography of the Old Norse Eddas – Iceland as a terra nova, discovery and colonisation
    • memory – always connected to a temporal dimension, and hence also to the spatial; a chronotope, an immediate connection to the Icelandic landscape (classical theories about memory see places (loci) as one of the most important instruments for the creation of memory)
    • connections between space and text at commemorative monuments, such as the location of the Battle of Stiklestad in Norway
    • utopias and dystopias during the Middle Ages – aspects of spatial semantics such as centre, periphery, diaspora or liminality enjoy a great popularity in Old Norse studies
    • nature as landscape in medieval poetry and prose; the two spatial categories of the pleasant place (locus amoenus) and the terrible place (locus terribilis)

I love intro week, everyone’s in a holding pattern. Lots of enthusiastic Vikings fans, who may be struggling with the introductory remarks – it’s not exactly FutureLearn style – although there have been complaints that week 1 was content lite.

Social: class map; there’s a Facebook group up and running and @abbie_thorne has made a Twitter list; no Twitter action to speak of.

Place writing now

On 18 November last year the London Review Bookshop held an event on Place writing now:

It’s not about travelling across the world to exotic places: it’s about digging where you stand.

Writing about place – a sub-genre of travel writing that subverts it by being about staying put, rather than moving – has been enjoying an extraordinary vogue of late. Three of the genre’s finest practitioners joined us at the shop to discuss its significance and future. Philip Marsden’s Rising ground (Granta) explores the small part of Cornwall to which he has recently transplanted himself; Julian Hoffman, in The small heart of things (Georgia) finds home around the shores of Greece’s Prespa lakes, and Ken Worpole in The new English landscape, a collaboration with the photographer Jason Orton (Field Station), proposes a new paradigm for topographical beauty based on the post-industrial landscape of the Thames estuary.

My notes from the recording:

  • place vs space: place is distinctive, space is characterised by sameness
  • one person’s space is another person’s place, cf self geographies – we all make our own maps
  • landscape vs place: place has an element of (cumulative) experience, tradition, and hence time
  • to live is to live locally, ie to know the place you live; to belong?
  • home has a concordance with place
  • Julian Hoffman (@JulianHoffman) – had no connection with the place, wrote to engage more deeply with it; stories came out of the place, helping him discover who the land is  – and who he is; when he comes back to the UK he feels closer to it; you make a new topography, unravel it and open it out
  • Ken Worpole – the aesthetics of the post-industrial landscape; you can’t erase the past, how should you represent it and articulate it in the present; can’t level the past; time is crucial, but the present dictates all, with place as a framing device
  • topophilia – frame of reference, what you can walk to in a day/year; our reference is small scale, but moved from vertical to horizontal when we became area of the shape of the world (see below); regions and nations are constructs, the place is our frame of reference – this is a universal response (so why travel?); mobility is an issue…we are hunter-gatherers, not farmers controlling the land
  • urban environments are characterised by diversity and displacement
  • we are moving but staying still – kestrel image, need an awareness even when on the move
  • maths of existence – we can only know a limited number of places
  • what awakens your perception, what is your trigger? time, place…
  • see also What is place?, an event report from @eccentricparab

Similar ground was covered by R4’s Start the Week on sense of place (29 December), looking at why we react so strongly to some places, look for meaning in them and build up stories about them over time. Guests:

Philip Marsden also popped up yet again on Ramblings on 26 Feb, and is still doing the rounds as his Rising ground: a search for the spirit of place (Granta interview | Jan Morris in Literary Review | AmazonGdn & again) has been nominated for the Wainwright Prize. Here are my notes from an extract:

  • Heidegger in Building Dwelling Thinking (p20): “To be is ‘to be in a place‘. Only by knowing our surroundings, being aware of topography and the past, can we live what Heidegger deems an ‘authentic’ existence.”
  • the effect that physical surroundings have on individuals and communities can be direct or symbolic and mythologised, as in the persistence of a lost homeland
  • the difference between ‘place’ and ‘space’ (p29-30): place is somewhere distinctive, where people react to and live with the particular topography around them, while space is an idealised location, absolute, unlimited and universal; a stress on the latter has led to the “abiding sameness which characterises contemporary life” and “an insensitivity to the significance of place”
  • Yi-Fu Tuan on two different ways of seeing the world (p31): vertical and horizontal; the ‘vertical’ conception of a world based around how far one could walk in a day and a polytheistic belief system meant that places were coloured by the gods which inhabited them or even took the shape of places; around 1500 this gave way to a more ‘horizontal’ perception populated by more distant places

LitLong Edinburgh: exploring the literary city

Edinburgh has just celebrated its 10th anniversary as UNESCO city of literature (Facebook | Twitter). The original city of literature, here’s Edinburgh’s literary story and details of tours and trails (guided | self guided | virtual – a bit lacking in the maps department, mind). Edinburgh is also home to the Scottish Poetry Library (Facebook | Twitter), the world’s first purpose built institution of its kind, it says here, and the Scottish Storytelling Centre (Facebook | Twitter), ditto, adjacent to John Knox House. Not forgetting the Book Festival (Facebook | Twitter), the “largest festival of its kind in the world“. 

The UK has one other city of literature, Norwich (see City of stories), and further literary cities include Dublin (great writers museum), and, pleasingly, Dunedin (about).

I suspect not entirely coincidentally, 30 March saw the launch of LitLong (@litlong), the latest output from the AHRC funded Palimpsest project (@LitPalimpsest) at the University of Edinburgh (see Nicola Osborne’s liveblog and #litlonglaunch, esp @sixfootdestiny). An “interactive resource of Edinburgh literature” currently based around a website with an app to come, LitLong grew out of the prototype Palimpsest app developed three years ago, taking a multidisciplinary team 15 months to build – geolocating the literature around a city is no trivial matter! See about LitLong for some of the issues.

550 works set in Edinburgh have been mined for placenames from the Edinburgh Gazetteer, with snippets selected for “interestingness” and added to the database, resulting in more than 47,000 mentions of over 1,600 different places. The data can be searched by keyword, location or author, opening up lots of possibilities, such as why is Irvine Welsh’s Embra further north than Walter Scott’s Edinburgh? Do memoir writers focus on different areas than crime writers? See too Mapping the Canongate.

Part of the point of Palimpsest is to allow us to explore and compare the cityscapes of individual writers, as well as the way in which literary works cultivate the personality of the city as a whole.

On the down side, while there is a handful of contemporary writers in the mix, the majority of the content necessarily comes from copyright free material available in a digitised corpus, ie old stuff they made you read at school. Plus search results can be rather overwhelming (339 hits for the Grassmarket) – filters for genre, time period, might be an idea. However the data is to be made available enabling interested parties to play around as they wish, with open source code and data resources on GitHub.

I’ve had a look at the data around Muriel Spark, who would surely be delighted to be considered contemporary. The prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961) has a section set in Cramond, near where I grew up. Drilling down using the location visualiser quickly brings us to:

“I shouldn’t have thought there was much to explore at Cramond,” said Mr. Lloyd, smiling at her with his golden forelock falling into his eye.

Searching the database brings up three pages of Cramond results to explore, including 17 Brodie snippets. Note that here you can filter by decade or source.

A search for Cammo, even closer to home, brought up a quote from Irvine Welsh’s Skagboys, although the map shown was different depending on which tool I used:

Edinburgh is a city of trees and woods; from the magnificence of the natural woodlands at Corstorphine Hill or Cammo, to the huge variety of splendid specimens in our parks and streets, Alexander argued, a pleasing flourish to his rhetoric. — Trees and woodlands have an inherent biodiversity value, whilst providing opportunities for recreation and environmental education.

location visualiser map - quill not in park

location visualiser map – quill in back gardens rather than the “natural woodlands” #picky

database search map -  not Cammo!

database search map – not Cammo!

At the other end of the scale a search for ‘Bobby’ brings up 72 snippets from Eleanor Atkinson’s book, that’s a lot to handle…TBH I don’t really want them, I want a nice map of locations mentioned in the book, or at least a list, to create my own Greyfriars Bobby trail. At the moment it’s not possible to switch between the text and the map from the location visualiser, although you can do this snippet by snippet from the database search.

As things stand LitLong feels like an academic project rather than a user friendly tool – some use cases might be an idea.Hopefully the same approach will be applied to other cities in due course.

Updates coming thick and fast…the Toronto Poetry Map and, also from Toronto but rather broader, Places of poems and poets based on Representative Poetry Online; from Stanford Literary Lab, Mapping emotions in Victorian London, maps 167 places named in 4,363 literary passages in 1,402 books by 741 authors (background | paper); uses Historypin and Amazon Mechanical Turk

Creative and literary non-fiction

I’m drawn to reading (and writing, translating, curating…) creative and literary non-fiction. Here’s some linkage.

Subgenres include place writing (post to come), memoir…

Metabooks, or how books became, has been a thing recently:

the writing of the lives of books can be literary, historical, biographical, autobiographical, essayistic or some combination of them all

Joyce Carol Oates has dubbed such efforts bibliomemoirs (in a six part series on the phenomenon). See also Sarah Churchwell’s article and the Gdn’s Top 10 books about reading, which reference most of the below:

I’ve a fair few Russian literary biogs which fall into this category, for example Janet Malcolm’s Reading Chekhov.

We also have writing about

  • the characters in (or simply recreating/imagining) classic novels – Austen; Wide Sargasso Sea; often peripheral characters (giving them a voice), eg Gwendolen in Daniel Deronda
  • real people (Katy Derbyshire: “using real-life characters in fiction is tricky – it can feel disrespectful when a writer assumes too much about what’s going on inside their heads”) – lots of Tolstoy

Another subgenre with appeal is experimental writing:

More experimental translations:

Moving on, devices include:

Translation specific devices:

See also post on ebooks and digital literature.

#smwbigsocialdata: getting social at CBS

On 27 February the boffins at Copenhagen Business School (aka the Computational Social Science Laboratory in the Department of IT Management) opened their doors for Social Media Week with Big social data analytics: modelling, visualization and prediction. This was the second time CSSL has participated in #smwcph, with their 2014 workshop (preso) looking at social media analytics. See also my post on text analysis in Denmark.

Wifi access was not offered, resulting in only 19 tweets, but as many of these were photos of the slides I’m not really complaining. Also no hands-on this year, all in all a bit of a lacklustre form of public engagement.

Ravi Vatrapu kicked off the workshop with a couple of definitions:

  • What is social? – involves the other; associations rather than relations, sets rather than networks
  • What is media? – time and place shifting of meanings and actions

The CSSL conceptual model:

model

  • social graph analytics – the structure of the relationships emerging from social media use; focusing on identifying the actors involved, the activities they undertake, the actions they perform and the artefacts they create and interact with
  • social text analytics – the substantive nature of the interactions; focusing on the topics discussed and how they are discussed

It’s a different philosophy from social network analysis, using fuzzy set logic instead of graph theory, associations instead of relations and sets instead of social networks.

Abid Hussain then presented the SODATO tool, which offers keyword, sentiment and actor attribute analysis on Twitter and Facebook (public posts only, uses Facebook Graph API). Data from (for example) a company’s wall can be presented in dashboard style, eg post distribution by month.

Next, Raghava Rao Mukkamala explored social set analytics for #Marius and other social media crises. Predictions (emotions, stock market prices, box office revenues, iphone sales) can be made based on Twitter data.

Benjamin Flesch’s Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi) is a tool for qualitative analysis. He has built a timeline of factory accidents and a corpus of Facebook walls for 11 companies, resulting in a social set analysis dashboard of 180 million+ data points around the time of the garment factory accidents in Bangladesh.

The dashboard shows an actor’s engagement before, during and after the crisis (time), which can also be analysed over space (how many walls did they post on). Tags are also listed, allowing text analysis to be undertaken.

Niels Buus Lassen and Rene Madsen then outlined some of their work with predictive modelling using Twitter. You have to buy into #some activity being a proxy for real world attention, ie Twitter as a mirror of what’s going on out in the market – a sampling issue like any other. Using a dashboard driven by SODATA they classify tweets using ensemble classifiers, such as iPhone sales from 500 million plus tweets containing the keyword “iphone” (see CBS news story | article in Science Nordic).

They also used a very cool formula I nearly understood.

Last up, Chris Zimmerman gave an overview of CSSL’s new Facebook Feelings project, a counterpart to all those Twitter happiness studies. A classification of 143 different emotions on Facebook, based on mood mining from 12 million public posts, yikes. “Feeling excited” was the most popular feeling by far. Analysis can be done and correlations made on any number of aspects of the data, with an active | passive axis in addition to the positive | negative axis used in sentiment analysis. Analysis by place runs into the usual issue – only 5% of data has locality data.

Overview slides currently available from the URL below…

Editing non-native English: academic editing

eCPD Webinars’ follow-up to Editing non-native English with Joy Burrough-Boenisch looked specifically at academic and scientific texts:

With so many non-native-English university students, academics and scientists expected to write in English there is huge demand for proofreaders and authors’ editors to make their texts fit for purpose. The presenter will discuss the nature of this work: what it entails, methods and techniques to use, and resources to deploy. Attention will also be given to the ethics of editing texts that are to be assessed by academic institutions and/or are intended to be published in pursuit of academic or scientific kudos.

To recap, typical ‘non-native’ features that need to be corrected include learner English problems and transfers from the author’s language and culture.

A growing number of non-native English (NNE) higher education students are required to write in English because they are studying in Anglophone countries or their courses are being taught in English (not always by native English speakers). Scientists are publishing more in English than in their own language.

Both individuals and companies offers editing help. See American Manuscript Editors, who offer to “correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. He or she will also improve the flow of your paper, eliminate any awkward sentences or phrasing, and ensure that the writing is clear and concise while meeting the formatting requirements of the targeted journal”. This is not just copy or language editing, and could be considered invasive.

In UK universities the language correction services offered to students as ‘proofreading’ (not to be confused with the reading of galley proofs or electronic texts to detect and correct minor errors before the text is published) are often provided by academically trained and generally not commercially-oriented persons.

This term proofreading, which historically the term only applied to the final check of galley proofs against marked-up text, is now used for checking final or near-final version of text and rectifying minor shortcomings. How minor is minor? See True Editing’s Academic Services for details of what they will do.

educateIf the text is to be graded or assessed, there are ethical issues, as writing skills may be part of the assessment. Editing hence entails correcting wrong or strange English, plus addressing other shortcomings.

If the text is an article for a peer reviewed journal or similar the usual aim of editing is to give that person a credible voice in the academic community, and hence editing entails correcting any wrong or strange English and non-Anglophone conventions, plus addressing other shortcomings.

You can choose to edit to educate – the third circle of the Venn diagram.

Ethical editing for students involves fixing language-related errors and flagging errors you think the student should be able to fix. Consider teaching via comments, either via marginal comments or as inline comments inserted in the text, forcing the author to engage with comments and remove them manually.

A further issue is plagiarism – keep an eye open for unexpected changes in style.

Universities are starting to develop policies on proofreading aka academic editing, eg LSE’s Statement on editorial help, Essex on proofreading, which bans noticeboard ads from proofreaders and has developed a register of proofreaders, with regular meetings for ‘control’. Their policy includes, for example, reformatting only a section of a bibliography as an appropriate level of intervention, but rewriting sections, reordering paragraphs or correcting factual errors as not. Substantive or structural editing is the role of the student’s supervisor. (Lots more on this plus examples in slides 57-62. See also Guardian article.

Professional organisation are also beginning to offer guidance. See the Institute of Professional Editors (PDF; 2001; see IPEd) in Australia and the Society for Editors and Proofreaders (SfEP), who have published a guide to checking the language of theses and dissertations.

Bottom line: the editor’s contribution should always be acknowledged. It should be clear whether the editor was responsible for the final or near-final draft. (Authors may ‘improve’ the edited manuscript without consulting the editor.) Examples on slides 65-68.

To edit academic texts you should:

  • be familiar with the jargon and discourse conventions of the given field of science (the ‘tribal language’)
  • know the style and conventions of the text genre (eg research article, grant proposal)
  • for journal articles, be acquainted with the journal’s instructions for authors

Google Scholar (dansk) can be used to check that words and phrases are acceptable jargon in both the SL and the TL. If it is only used in the SL try Google Translate. Alternatively a specialist corpus such as Springer Exemplar can be used – it shows the country or usage, over time etc. (Sometimes words do make it out of the SL into broader usage.) If this does not resolve the issue, ask the author!

From the Q&A:

  • to calculate how long it might take, translate 1K words and add on a margin – if it takes 4 hours, you are going to have to re-examine your level of edit and find a compromise; JBB goes with four double spaced pages of text/hour + 1 page wriggle room
  • state that will charge less if takes a shorter time; what if more?
  • the PhD issue – technical translators don’t usually have PhDs in the subject; you can be self educated due to an interest and gain background knowledge cf Karen Shashok, the main thing is to be linguistically gifted, there are techniques you can use; once you specialise in a field you start to feel comfortable with the ‘tribal language’
  • can’t they get away with dodgy English? – one country’s NNE may not be understood by NNSs from another country, the whole thing will get lost in translation; an international norm is needed which is understandable to all; lowering the bar perpetuates errors and may well lead to dodgy English getting into a corpus, or becoming the norm for a tribe, see EU English

Clearly the further you move up the editing scale the more you can charge. Academic proofreading prices range roughly from £16 for a 2,000-word essay to £600 for a doctoral thesis (from ghostwriting article), but Harwood found offers varied widely, with some charging by the hour and some by the word. JBB charges by the hour for editing, but by the word for translating. EASE allegedly charges £29.60/hour (low), while Libro charges (2014) from £6 per 1000 words (standard) and £9 per 1000 words (urgent).

Links:

See also my post on academic writing, which includes some English for Academic Purposes and style links.

Who does it?

Editing non-native English

eCPD Webinars’ introduction to editing non-native English took place at 12:30 CET on 10 February:

The many types of non-native written English have common characteristics that academic language professionals tasked with editing or proofreading should know to look out for. Focusing mainly on European languages, the presenter will give examples of non-native-English textual features and explain why authors produce them. Understanding what drives the author is only part of the story, so we will also look at what drives the editor or proofreader to change text. Though aimed primarily at novices, the presentation will also benefit more seasoned practitioners, by consolidating their knowledge and enabling them to put their editing in perspective.

Led by Joy Burrough-Boenisch (LinkedIn), who doesn’t look like a novice, so I gave it a whirl, along with ~27 other attendees. It still feels weird to pay for a webinar, but this one was interesting and thought provoking.

I’ve worked as an editor for many a year so I was interested in what would be highlighted as specific to editing non-native English, as opposed to poor English, or even English written in a different style from that required. And what are the particular pitfalls in editing the English written by someone whose language you do not know? (That sentence could do with a little help.)

Like me, but unlike most of the webinar participants, Joy came into translating via editing. She stated however that the translation angle gives you a different way of looking at things.

Useful skills:

  • subject knowledge – gives you access to jargon and ‘tribal usage’
  • cultural knowledge – but bear in mind how personal and other factors can affect your editing, including your knowledge of a language (cf going Dutch)

From old friend NASA’s Levels of edit (1980):

[the levels are] not applicable to editing copy by a foreign born person who is not familiar with idiomatic English usage

This is a non- professionalised field – many people who edit non-native English are not necessarily experienced in the types of editing that professional editors perform. Equally, the English word ‘editing’ means different things to different people, depending on their mother tongue and their field of work. Different connotations are attached to editing and the terminology to describe text processing, even within the language professions (journalism, publishing, copywriting and translation, for example). (See Copyediting and proofreading: similar yet different and Can you pass a proofreading test?)

Traits of non-native English:

  • the writing of non-native authors of English is likely to have faults and inadequacies common to all draft texts, such as typos, spelling errors, omissions and inaccuracies, tautology and redundancy, poor writing – ie the same as in native English, which can be a comfort to the non-native author
  • specifically ‘non-native’ characteristics can be grouped into two categories:
    • learner English problems, not always picked up by spelling and grammar checkers, such as limited vocabulary and inappropriate register
    • transfers from the author’s language and culture, such as idioms, ‘airing cupboards’ (cultural things which need explanation), The Egg of Columbus
  • it helps to be able to speak, or at least to be familiar with the author’s language: ie to be able to use translation strategies
  • language transfers – spelling a word according to how you ‘hear’ it
  • convention transfer – punctuation, eg Danish comma rules, overuse of !; Dutch/German paragraphs (incidentally, are English paras universally still indented?)
  • limited vocabulary, leading to overuse and repetition
  • formal vs informal
  • US vs UK English
  • false friends
  • differing usage of Latin words – someone’s probably written a paper on that
  • different writing cultures – sentence length, linking words (English uses lots, eg moreover, in addition), ways of emphasising words
  • absences may also be transferred – in/definite articles, tenses, gender pronouns, lack of a precise word

Strategies for problem solving:

  • consult web resources on common errors made by writers sharing your author’s native language
  • think laterally
  • back-translate – Google Translate can help here

Usage of corpora was bigged up. Ideally the corpus should cover the area you are editing, but you can always create your own. (See my #corpusmooc posts, esp on language learning, using AntConc and using CQPweb. A year ago already!)

Editing skills:

  • general editorial principles – remove redundancy, ensure accuracy, edit to achieve clarity of expression and logic of presentation
  • importance of consistency – adhere to a self-imposed or prescribed style (spelling, the use of abbreviations, the formatting of references, appropriate standards for international symbols for units of measurement)
  • follow a style manual which prescribes spelling, punctuation, use of typefaces (italics, for example), capitalisation etc
  • be aware of conventions and practices of both main forms of English (in practice, many non-native-speaker authors write in a mixture of British and American English)
  • consult publicly accessible corpora and build up own corpora of published texts
  • awareness of genre theory – analysing and comparing genres from the author’s culture with the equivalent genres in English can be revealing (eg meeting minutes tense)
  • usage of the mark-up techniques used by (proper) copyeditors is not essential

Translation skills:

  • familiarisation with differences between the source language and the target language acquired from translation means you become particularly alert to false friends and other linguistic and cultural transfers
  • comparing style guides in English with style guides in the author’s language (sprogpolitik) reveals differences in conventions (punctuation, alphabetisation and usage of Latin)
  • back-translating ‘nonsense’ sentences or phrases into the author’s language.  The Internet translation tool will reveal alternative translations for a highlighted word, and this can lead the editor directly or indirectly (via a false friend) to the editorial solution

Some of the above comes from Joy’s article on editing non-native English. See also Supporting research writing: roles and challenges in multilingual settings (co-editor with V Matarese). Finally, membership of  SENSE (Society of English-Native-Speaking Editors; mainly NL, has some DK members) and MET (Mediterranean Editors & Translators; lots of lovely links) can help avoid language attrition, and also be good for networking.