An urbanist’s Frederiksberg

Current/new:

  • Cisternerne: at 31m (CPH’s highest point) was able to use the pressure from the hill to guide the water from the Lakes through the filters in the pumphouse to the end-user; emptied in 1981, leaving 4000m2 of empty space to fill (report)
  • Engbakken (2017): 124 ungdomsboliger (kollegium?) on eight storeys at Bispeengbuen (Nordre Fasanvej 207A), by Arkitema for fsb (report)

FRB:

CBS:

  • Handelshojskolen founded by Foreningen til Unge Handelsmaends Uddannelse (FUHU, today DSEB)
  • 1927: took over rooms in a building opposite Forum on Julius Thomsens Plads
  • 1939: own building on the corner of Julius Thomsens Plads and Rosenorns Alle, today occupied by Niels Brock
  • 1965: language departments moved to a new building at Howitzvej 60
  • 1071/72: new building at Staehr Johansens Vej, today occupied by TEC
  • 1988: whole school moved to Dalgas Have and renamed Copenhagen Business School
  • 2000: Solbjerg Plads opened
  • 2005: Kilen, at Kilevej 14, opened in 2006
  • more buildings: Porcelaenshaven, Stig Lommers Plads (Flintholm), Studenter- og Innovationshus in an old police station
  • 2014: Solbjerg Campus project launched
  • 2016: Graduate House at the former Hamlet hospital, HV Nyhomsvej

Summed up:

  • Frederiksberg ikke er en klassisk by, som f.eks. København, med et centrum, hvor kongen bor med adelen udenom og borgerne længere væk. Frederiksberg er ikke som andre byer ekspanderet ved at skabe en forstad og ved at bebygge landskabet udenfor byens klare grænse. På Frederiksberg ligger naturen og landskabet inde i byen.
  • how significant is the administrative divide? at the turn of the 20th century FRB was perceived as either CPH’s Monaco, due to its lower taxes and conservatism, or the metropolis’ faubourg, an exclusive quarter with allees and avenues, a palace, the bourgeoisie living next to the boheme, in the form of artists and entertainments such as Josty and Lorry (BoBo); in truth it was a touch provincial, outside the true centre of things
  • Hvorfor føles Frederiksberg anderledes? Findes der en særlig frederiksbergsk arkitektur? Hvordan kan det blive til en arkitekturpolitik? Det har vi spurgt tre arkitekter om, der lige nu arbejder med en arkitekturpolitik for Frederiksberg: Stadsarkitekt Claus Sivager, byudviklingschef Jesper Dahl og projektleder Martin Thue Jakobsen.
  • a rather different feel, due not least to its own brand of street furniture (inc its own bench with a falcon on the arms) and a profusion of street trees
  • streets have a quality lacking elsewhere in the city
  • byen i byen, hovedstadens grønne oase…villaby (best ones at Amalievej and Kastanievej between Bulowsvej and HC Ørsteds Vej, Christian Winthersvej and Steen Blichers Vej, between Nordre Fasanvej and Dalgas Blvd and west of Dalgas Blvd )
  • today northern Europe’s most densely populated urban area and DK’s smallest kommune, with 100K plus in a 8.7 km2 area
  • eastern side: street after street of blocks in a uniform height on fairly narrow streets, creating a claustrophobic atmosphere; what goes on the yards behind? this closes, and may even privatise, the public realm, with space that has to be managed at a cost, in either service charges or community effort

Up to WW1:

  • mid 1600s: Christian IV establised a farm on a pocket of land around Allegade to supply Københavns Slot and Rosenborg with food (until 1645)
  • 1651: Frederik III awarded the land to 20 Dutch peasants from Amager (village first known as Ny Amager or Ny Hollænderby)
  • originally a village at the foot of Frederiksberg Slot, around Allé- Bred- and Smallegade, far from CPH’s fortifications
  • 1703: Frederiksbergs Allé constructed as a private road for Frederik IV, running from Vesterbrogade to the new palace
  • 1747: establishment of Frederiksberg og Hvidovre Sognes Pastorat
  • 1802: establishment of Frederiksberg-Hvidovre Landkommune
  • 1852: with the public opening of Frederiksbergs Have and Søndermarken the area became very popular, not least for the view from the top of the ‘hill’; a lively entertainment scene developed which survives today
  • 1857: Frederiksberg becomes an independent ‘urban’ kommune, attracting wealthy types who build villas in the area, often in classical style, but on fairly small plots; typical Danish Golden Age, up to the 1880s and beyond
  • 1863: first railway line in the area
  • 1864: station built on Solbjerg Plads
  • 1886: Frederiksberg’s first town hall erected on the corner of Howitzvej/Falkoner Alle, along with a fire station, poor house and a school; police station in what is now Storm P Museum
  • 1900: Den Hvide Arbejderby, velfærdsstatens første boliger, by Gotfred Tvede and Olaf Schmidth, built around Broderskabsvej (behind Peter Bangs Vej and Jyllandsvej) by a byggeforening for gas and tram workers; 45 semis and seven detached houses (near Den Grønne Sti??)
  • 1901: after CPH’s landgrab becomes an enclave
  • 1953: new town hall inaugurated after a 12 year building process

During the late 19th century etagehuser and philanthropic institutions were built, often by speculators, in a broad band from Skt. Jørgens Sø and Ladegårdsåen (now Åboulevarden/Ågade) to Gammel Kongevej and beyond over the other side of Frederiksbergs Alle. Factories were concentrated around Falkoner Alle and between HC Ørsteds Vej and Skt. Jørgens Sø (Schønbergsgadekvarteret, roughest area).

Essentially a similar picture to Copenhagen’s brokvarterer, but with tighter development control, meaning slightly better conditions – broad streets with gardens down the middle and broken kareer, allowing light into the backyards, the planning in of green areas such as at Danas Plads (1907) and Langelands Plads (c1900), plus a whole havebælte through the etageejendomme on four side streets between Frederiksberg Alle and Gammel Kongevej (Mynstersvej, Nyvej, Martesens Alle, Madvigs Alle), with a smaller version between NJ Fjords Alle, Dr Abildgaards Alle and LI Brandes Alle).

Interwar period:

  • Indre FRB:
    • Julius Thomsens Plads (1925) – often used for events
    • Forum (1926) – by Oscar Gundlach-Pedersen
    • Søndermarks Kapel (1929) – by Frits Schlegel and Edvard Thomsen
    • Frederiksberg Svømmehal (1934)
    • Teknisk Skole (1938) – at Julius Thomsens Gade, by Aage Rafn and SC Larsen
    • Handelshøjskolen (1939)
    • HC Ørsteds Vej 54 (1939)
    • Radiohuset (1941)
  • kulissebyggeri especially along the east-west arteries of Borups Alle, Godthåbsvej, Finsensvej and Peter Bangs Vej – big karreer with grønnegårde, and later fritliggende boligblokke
    • Det Grønne Funkishus (1932)
    • more funkis at Paludan Mullers Vej, plus another strygehjerne between Finsensvej, H Jespersens Vej and Philip Schous Vej (1932, by Palle Suenson and Thorvald Dreyer), and something you can’t see: Andebakkegaarden, Ved Andebakken (1940), by Ole Falkentorp
    • Flintholm Allé (1935) – corner blocks built by boligforeninger
    • Hostrups Have (1936)
    • Aksel Møllers Have (1946)
    • Sønderjyllands Allé:
      • Den sønderjyske By (1920s) – Bedre Byggeskik; lower etagebyggeri, some social and some private
      • Idrætsparken (1926)
      • Sønderjyllandsskolen (1943)
    • Lindevangskvarteret (early 1930s)
      • Wilkensvej, large social housing blocks; 5 etagers karrébebyggelser bygget i årene 1920-50, some private
      • Lindevangsparken
  • rækkehuse: Goldschmidtsvej (1930, some by Wittmack og Hvalsøe), CN Petersensvej, N Jespersens Vej, Philip Schous Vej (by Wittmack & Halsøe and Axel Buch)
    • Fuglebakkekvarteret (1928) – 211 rækkehuse by Thorkild Henningsen)
  • industry concentrated along the railway line at Fabriksvej (now Stæhr Johansensvej), the eastern part of Finsensvej and Peter Bangs Vej, and along Vagtelvej
  • greener areas with villas around Femte Juni Plads and between Peter Bangs Vej and Roskildevej:
  • finally spread west of Søndre Fasanvej (Mariendalskvarteret RU sure)
    • KB Hallen (1938) – burnt down (2017 version); at the time the biggest sportsground in Europe

Post-war:

  • pretty much full by 1950s, leading to depopulation
  • Frederiksberg Rådhus – by Henning Hansen, Carl H Nimb and Helge Holm, inaugurated in 1952 after a 10 year building process; has a paternoster, 60m tower
  • Smykkeskrinet (1950) – Nordre Fasanvej 79
  • Fjerde Maj Kollegiet (1952)
  • Finsensgård (1952) – 71 flats at Finsensvej 58-68; esp for paintings over doorways
  • Ved Fuglebakken (1954) – next to the 10 rækkehuse at Mathilde Fibigers Vej
  • Punkthusene Søndermarken (1955) –  at Borgmester Fischersvej and Magnoliavej; five 16 storey blocks
  • Falkoner Centret (1959)
  • Christian Paulsens Vej (1959) – housing built for the homeless as well as social housing
  • Rådmand Steins Allé (early 1950s) – three venskabsbyhusene, called after FRBs venskabsbyer ( Uppsalahus, Bærumhus and Tavastehus); a fourth, Havnefjord, started in 1959 but not completed until the early 1970s

1960s/70s:

In 1950 FRB had 150K inhabitants and was almost completely built up; by the end of the 1970s the population had fallen to 88K, with both people and industry moving to the suburbs. This allowed for a period of slum clearance (sanering) and redevelopment (byfornyelse), which in places met with some resistance – demos at Stjernen, Platanvej (podcast), Krystalgården, Solbjerg Have, Vodroffsvej.

  • Codanhus (1961; 61m, 21 storeys) – by Ole Hagen; only part of Jorn Utzon’s plan realised
  • Domus Vista (1969) and Nordens Plads
  • Kongens Bryghus Grunden – at Vodroffsvej 23-31 (podcast), formerly housed Marstrands Bryggerier, established in 1865 and pulled down in 1976 to widespread protest; scene of a big demo in 1978, after a collective at Vodroffsvej 2c was pulled down
  • Danmarksgården (1977)
  • Krystalgården (1969) – at Finsensvej 3-13, by Jørgen Buschardt; replacing Bryggeriet Frederiksberg (1880) and Krystalisværket (1914)
  • Hofmeyersvej
  • Landbohøjskolens højhus (1971)
  • Bispeengbuen (1972)
  • Nordre Fasanvej Kvarteret:
  • Peter Bangs Vej 32 – Nilfisk factory (1913-95; moved to Brondby) with 13m smutvej from 1971 used to transport products from one building to another
  • PG Ramms Alle
  • Roskildevej – taet-lav (all those skellets), lovely terrace houses; last bit of FRB to be built from bare fields
  • Solbjerg Have (1979) – at Finsensvej; by Fællestegnestuen; on the site of Frederiksberg Gasværk (vid) and Finsensværket power station, an unusual combination of both high and low rise, with a seven storey building sloping down to a lower village-like inner area integrating institutions from cradle to grave (creche, kindergartens, sheltered houses and an old people’s home), made up of 328/407 terraced houses & flats, most with either a garden o r balcony, in a car-free space, all strangely reminiscent of London’s Barbican (Arkark | Arkitekturbilleder | DAC)

Post 1990s/2000s:

  • now a ‘service’ or ‘city’ by
  • Borups Have – on Borups Vej, former industrial zone
  • Frederiksberg Forbrændingsanstalt (1903) by Henrik Wenck
  • Dalgas Boulevard (1915) – 38m wide classic boulevard between Peter Bangs Vej and Roskildevej
  • housing also renovated – bought and turned into andel, put together to form bigger flats, new balconies, windows, backyards renovated to green recreational areas
  • Diakonissestiftelsens hospice – Nord Architects’ nye lokaler
  • Domhus (1921/2012) – by 3xN
  • Flintholm – station (2004) by KHR, Denmark’s third busiest; Revykvarteret emerging area behind, on site of Frederiksberg Gasværk
  • Frederiksberg Centret (1996) – by KHR Arkitekter
  • Frederiksberg Hospital – connecting building aka smutvej (1999) over Vej 4
  • Frederiksberg Station area – new town centre, area between Solbjergvej and Nyelandsvej most affected; Cafe Metropolitain (2006) next to Handelsbanken (former post office); both moved from original position
  • Frederiksvej Kindergarten (COBE)
  • Nimbus Parken – on Fisker & Nielsens old industrial ground at Peter Bangs Vej 32 (see above), housing, offices, Hamlet private hospital: called after the Nimbus motorcyle
  • Porcellænshave (2005) – houses Royal Copenhagen and Georg Jensen outlets…produced porcelain until 2004
  • Solbjerg Plads (2005) – by SLA Landskabsarkitekter; space surrounded by the shopping centre, Frederiksberg Gymnasium (2004, by Henning Larsen) and Hovedbibliotek (1935/2004, by Henning Larsen)