Defending Denmark

Fortress Scandinavia by local Søren Østergaard has it covered.

Terminology: moat defence system = voldanlæg | fortifications = fæstningsanlæg

Forts in the Øresund: Flakfortet: for saleMiddelgrundsfortet sold to the scouts | Trekroner

Fæstningsringen (voldene)

  • 17th century | 1850 map
  • decommissioned in 1870 – what remains is a green belt from Kastellet (under control of the military until ?), Østre Anlæg, Botanisk Have, Israels Plads, Ørstedsparken to the lake in Tivoli
  • taking a walk on the Voldene became a tradition, cf Water of Leith
  • Christianshavns Vold is the best reminder of what was…five bastions with ramparts and moats (maps)

Befæstningen: Søren Østergaard (English)

Vestvolden

WW1

  • Mosede Fort: reopened in 2014 in experience centre mode
  • trench: Tykke Bertha dug a 22km long trench from Tunestillingen in Koge Bugt to Roskilde Fjord in 1916 JIC
  • North German Defence Line (Søren Østergaard): Sicherungsstellen Nord, constructed between Aabenraa and Rømø between 1916 and 1918 to prevent a planned British operation to seize the Kiel canal and trap the German fleet in the Baltic (Germany held this territory at the time)
  • POW camps: neutral Denmark contacted by the Red Cross to passe 100,000 POWs from both sides during 1918-19:

WW2

  • Atlantic Wall: extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from Great Britain during World War II
  • bunkers, casemates or gun emplacements and observation posts that dot 3,000 miles of Atlantic coastline, from Kristiansand in Norway to Capbreton in Aquitaine
  • general bunker outputs: Geoff Nicholson | Ianthe Ruthven (TLS | NYRB | Country Life) | Stephan Vanfleteren (again)
  • see also also Cramond Island, Faroes, Orkney…

In DK:

Bunkers (civil and military):

Forts:

Cold War: