#edDDI: Digital Day of Ideas 2015

2016 update: #DigScholEd was liveblogged by Nicola Osborne. Keynotes from literary historian Ted Underwood on Predicting the past, a distant reading type approach to digital libraries, Lorna Hughes on Content, co-curation and innovation: digital humanities and cultural heritage collaboration, and Karen Gregory on Conceptualizing digital sociology.

Bumped/rewritten post – see below for brief mentions of #edDDI in 2014 and 2013 and other #digitalhss doings.

From the #digitalhss stable came Digital Day of Ideas 2015 (#EdDDI | TAGSExplorer – see graph) on 26 May, livetweeted, blogged and Storified by Lorna Campbell (@LornaMCampbell), with recordings of the talks to come.

Speakers and outputs:

Other #edDDIs:

#digitalhss in four keys: medicine, law, bibliography and crime, workshop on 12 November 2013, liveblogged by Nicola Osborne:

  • Digital articulations in medicine (Alison Crockford) – ah, the Surgeons’ Hall…seeks to illuminate the relationship between literature and medicine in Edinburgh through the development of a digital reader,  joining together not only the literary and medical spheres but also the rapidly expanding field of the digital and the medical humanities; interesting points on the nature of digihum and public engagement issues, see Dissecting Edinburgh for more
  • Rethinking property: copyright law and digital humanities research (Zhu Chen Wei) – the entrenched idea of copyright as an exclusive property regime is ill suited for understanding digihum research activities; how might copyright law respond to the challenges posed by digital humanities research, in particular the legality of mass digitisation of scholarly materials and the possible copyright exemption for text and data mining
  • Building and rebuilding a digital catalogue for modern Chinese Buddhism (Gregory Scott) – the Digital Catalogue of Chinese Buddhism is a collection of data on over 2300 published items with a web based, online interface for searching and filtering its content; can the methods and implications of working with a large number of itemised records, bibliographic or otherwise, be applied to other projects?; channelling Borges’ library of Babel 
  • Digitally mapping crime in Edinburgh, 1900-1939 (Louise Settle) – specifically an historical geography of prostitution in Edinburgh; used Edinburgh Map Builder, developed as part of the Visualising Urban Geographies project, which allows you to use National Library of Scotland maps, Google Maps and your own data; viz helps you spot trends and patterns you may not have noticed before;  for locations elsewhere in UK Digimap includes both contemporary and historical maps; Historypin uses historical photography to create maps, (EH4, plus come in #kierkegaard); see also the Edinburgh Atlas

See also the workshop on data mining on 19 November 2013.

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LitLong Edinburgh: exploring the literary city

Update: LitLong 2.0 launched at the 2017 Embra BookFest; see article

Edinburgh has just celebrated its 10th anniversary as UNESCO city of literature (Facebook | Twitter). The original city of literature, here’s Edinburgh’s literary story and details of tours and trails (guided | self guided | virtual – a bit lacking in the maps department, mind). Edinburgh is also home to the Scottish Poetry Library (Facebook | Twitter), the world’s first purpose built institution of its kind, it says here, and the Scottish Storytelling Centre (Facebook | Twitter), ditto, adjacent to John Knox House. Not forgetting the Book Festival (Facebook | Twitter), the “largest festival of its kind in the world“. 

The UK has one other city of literature, Norwich (see City of stories), and further literary cities include Dublin (great writers museum), and, pleasingly, Dunedin (about). Update: Nottingham has a bid in! If But I know this city! (tweets | David Belbin | report) is anything to go by, it should be successful. And there’s even Literary Dundee (@literarydundee). Unexpected update: Literary Odessa.

I suspect not entirely coincidentally, 30 March saw the launch of LitLong (@litlong), the latest output from the AHRC funded Palimpsest project (@LitPalimpsest) at the University of Edinburgh (see Nicola Osborne’s liveblog and #litlonglaunch, esp @sixfootdestiny). An “interactive resource of Edinburgh literature” currently based around a website with an app to come launched for iOS, LitLong grew out of the prototype Palimpsest app developed three years ago, taking a multidisciplinary team 15 months to build – geolocating the literature around a city is no trivial matter! See about LitLong for some of the issues.

550 works set in Edinburgh have been mined for placenames from the Edinburgh Gazetteer, with snippets selected for “interestingness” and added to the database, resulting in more than 47,000 mentions of over 1,600 different places. The data can be searched by keyword, location or author, opening up lots of possibilities, such as why is Irvine Welsh’s Embra further north than Walter Scott’s Edinburgh? Do memoir writers focus on different areas than crime writers? See too Mapping the Canongate.

Part of the point of Palimpsest is to allow us to explore and compare the cityscapes of individual writers, as well as the way in which literary works cultivate the personality of the city as a whole.

On the down side, while there is a handful of contemporary writers in the mix, the majority of the content necessarily comes from copyright free material available in a digitised corpus, ie old stuff they made you read at school. Plus search results can be rather overwhelming (339 hits for the Grassmarket) – filters for genre, time period, might be an idea. However the data is to be made available enabling interested parties to play around as they wish, with open source code and data resources on GitHub.

I’ve had a look at the data around Muriel Spark, who would surely be delighted to be considered contemporary. The prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961) has a section set in Cramond, near where I grew up. Drilling down using the location visualiser quickly brings us to:

“I shouldn’t have thought there was much to explore at Cramond,” said Mr. Lloyd, smiling at her with his golden forelock falling into his eye.

Searching the database brings up three pages of Cramond results to explore, including 17 Brodie snippets. Note that here you can filter by decade or source.

A search for Cammo, even closer to home, brought up a quote from Irvine Welsh’s Skagboys, although the map shown was different depending on which tool I used:

Edinburgh is a city of trees and woods; from the magnificence of the natural woodlands at Corstorphine Hill or Cammo, to the huge variety of splendid specimens in our parks and streets, Alexander argued, a pleasing flourish to his rhetoric. — Trees and woodlands have an inherent biodiversity value, whilst providing opportunities for recreation and environmental education.

location visualiser map - quill not in park

location visualiser map – quill in back gardens rather than the “natural woodlands” #picky

database search map - not Cammo!

database search map – not Cammo!

At the other end of the scale a search for ‘Bobby’ brings up 72 snippets from Eleanor Atkinson’s book, that’s a lot to handle…TBH I don’t really want them, I want a nice map of locations mentioned in the book, or at least a list, to create my own Greyfriars Bobby trail. At the moment it’s not possible to switch between the text and the map from the location visualiser, although you can do this snippet by snippet from the database search.

As things stand LitLong feels like an academic project rather than a user friendly tool – some use cases might be an idea.Hopefully the same approach will be applied to other cities in due course.

Telling stories with maps: literary geographies

Telling stories with maps: the geoweb, qualitative GIS and narrative mapping (programme) was a seminar (report | another one) held on 30 April as part of Hestia2, a project centred round spatial reading and visualising Herodotus’ Histories (see posts). Sessions in the morning covered narrative mapping while the afternoon focused on literary analysis and networks.

Sessions of particular note:

During the lunch break participants tried out the MapLocal app (Android only), which allows users to take photos and record audio commentaries which are geolocated and uploaded to a shared map. Echoes of the Gdn’s Google  Street View Sleuth?

Time to revisit Kierkegaard in maps, although other personally related themes might prove more doable.

A recurrent theme [was] the conceptual and technical challenges associated with efforts to shift the focus away from traditional ‘Cartesian’ cartographic methods – with their focus on surfaces, images and topographies – onto the topological and networked representations contained in narrative depictions of space.

What is lost in translation from narrative to map or map to narrative form?

Great livetweeting from @muziejus:

A further event on 6 June explored digital pedagogy.

Some linkage:

From #corpusmooc materials on spatial humanities (full post archived):

Some notes:

  • literary cartography
    • an approach using a symbolic language
    • spatial elements of texts are translated into cartographic symbols
    • allows new ways in exploring and analysing the geography of literature
    • tools of interpretation – show something which hasn’t been seen before
    • not just supporting the text
  • the space of fiction – categories
    • settings – where the action takes place (house, village)
    • zones of action – several settings combined (city, region)
    • projected spaces
      • characters are not present but are thinking of, remembering, longing for or imagining a specific place
    • markers – places which are mentioned; indicate the geographical range and horizon of a fictional space
    • paths/routes – along which characters move; connections between waypoints (settings, projected spaces)
  • database support
    • data model
      • general text information, including bibliography and assigned model region
      • about the author
      • the temporal structure of the story line
      • spatial objects
    • maps created automatically from database
  • what elements of the literary space can be mapped
    • the city in literature
    • interactions/tensions between centre and periphery
    • travelling
    • crossing borders
    • imaginary places
    • literary tourism
  • what elements are unmappable
  • different representations for epochs, genres?
  • spatial models
    • maps in literature, eg Treasure Island
    • imaginary settings
    • mapping of a single text
    • mapping of groups of texts
      • where and when do cities appear on the literary map of Europe?
      • how international is the space?
    • placing literature on a map
      • simplistic
      • no theoretical foundation
    • issues and uncertainties
      • the artistic freedom of the author
      • semantic and linguistic variation in describing places and spaces
      • vague geographical concepts
      • reading variations by different readers
      • visualisation need to make some things clearer than they actually are
      • texts do not always provide distinct or correct information
      • different interpreters can provide different viewpoints – subjective
      • mark data as direct/indirect reference
      • detail may not be provided of a journey, but a straight line gives the wrong impression
  • maps as an intermediate results, sources of inspiration, generators of ideas for future research
    • makes aspects visible which were invisible before
    • creates knowledge about places, their historical layers, meanings, functions and symbolic values

Mapping #some

Update, Feb 2015: Tourists v locals: city heat maps showing geolocated tweets; tourists in CPH can be found in the city centre and at the airport, duh…but interesting concept! Here’s more…

Eric Fisher (Flickr | Twitter):

Cue #SoMe klaxon! Week 4 of #mapmooc looked at social media as spatial data, how social media can be used with maps, advantages and pitfalls…and just how easy it actually is to plot it on a map.

On Twitter few tweets are geotagged.  We’re up to a grand total of three in the #mapmooc TAGS archive – two by me plus:

But not:

See the difference in @asudell‘s stream:

Drew

#vandymaps are also having issues:

Seems that tweets made with the web client only get geolocation information (coordinates) in TAGS if they are tagged individually, but not if the user has merely added location in Settings, which TAGS doesn’t collect (htow about the vanilla Twitter API?). OTOH mobile apps, with inbuilt GPS, _do_ offer geocoordinates simply when location is turned on. At least I think that’s right – thanks to @derekbruff and @asudell for sorting this out!

(Update: @derekbruff has set up a #vandymaps archive, and is investigating geotagging tweets. Checking the #mapsmooc archive reveals that two of my own tweets, where I added location via the Twitter Web client, are the only ones with data in the geo_coordinates field. I’ve extracted the data from the user_lang field and will take a closer look PDQ.)

But even a small set of tweets can offer potentially interesting results – see What’s happening in our vicinity from Field Office (an arts project currently going on in CPH) – a snapshot of geotagged tweets using the Streamd.in app, plus the Esri Public Information Map, in the week’s mapping assignment. This shows the real time effects of extreme weather events and other natural disasters, including geotagged social content from Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube. As noted in the forums however this is a rather blunt instrument with a poor signal to noise ratio.

Tweetmap Alpha is a further tool to filter geotagged tweets. As we know geotagging and privacy kinda go together. GeoSocial Footprint looks at the location information you divulge on Twitter in the light of potential privacy concerns. A footprint is made up of GPS enabled tweets, social check-ins, natural language location searching (geocoding) and profile harvesting. It states that “14 million tweets per day contain embedded GPS coordinates and up to 35% of all tweets containing additional location information”, which seems rather higher than in my experience.

Geolocating tweets the hard way

Back in lesson 1, it was noted that locations relevant to a particular tweet could include:

  • the locations mentioned in the message itself
  • the user’s location when they created the message
  • the user’s home location
  • the locations implied by the message

What are you plotting when you plot location? Where people live, where they work, where there is free wifi?

And from a thread, the following methods can be used to determine the spatial origin of tweets:

  • gelocation (geotags?)
  • Geo-IP and user designations (haven’t a clue)
  • the location from the user’s profile

So, there’s more to it than geotagging via GPS. See for example Tweak The Tweet, which uses “a hashtag-based syntax to help direct Twitter communications for more efficient data extraction”.

A bunch of maps were presented on the forums, including a lone Facebook example (Mapping the world’s friendships), leading to extensive discussions on sentiment analysis and how it might/not work. Happy days!

For starters, at least three university projects use Twitter to understand [emotions] in the USA, including…

Other projects which may/not be connected to the above: Emography | Tweetfeel | Twittermood | We feel fine | Mappiness (UK). Enough already! Update, June 2014: Five Labs ” analyzes your Facebook posts to predict the personalities of you and your friends”.

More clues on sophisticated methods IRT geolocation no doubt to be found in:

I could also do with:

A nice story to finish, in the warm up to week 5.  #mapmoocer Tony Targonski created a map of Seattle on an earlier Coursera MOOC: “Larger circles mean more social activity. Greener colour represents more “positive” than expected; redder is less “positive” than expected. In this case “positive” refers to valence (a commonly used measure of sentiment), and “expected” is the predicted valence score based on the walkability measure of the block (overall more walkable places correlate with more positive sentiment).”

Which is an interesting point IRT Happy Denmark. They’re not happy, they just bike a lot (like I didn’t know).

#mapmooc statistics week 4 (7-13 August):

  • 656 (558; 374; 206) tweets, 202 (181, 117, 82) RTs, 264 (212, 112, 61) links (all +/- due to time zone differences)
  • top tweeters: @MapRevolution, @DougOfNashville, @PublicUniverse
  • n=246 (230, 152, 129); 157 (155 (102, 74) have tweeted only once
  • 61 (54, 40, 30) threads 9 (9 (11, 12)%
  • top conversationalists: @MapRevolution, @derekbruff, @annindk

Postscript: among its rather nice web apps Esri offers a social media app (hopefully a bit more stable than the gallery app) plus stuff on making a social media map in minutes – come in! See the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis Map for an example.

As a quick test I took a look at Denmark’s most popular hashtag,#dkpol. Danes aren’t big tweeters, but they are big mobile users and #dkpol people are a pretty vociferous bunch, but the results were rather underwhelming. Putting #SoMe on a map seems to be less about creating a meaningful map and more about simply harvesting the data – see We are on Albert Drive for an example of what can be done. To be revisited.